; Zou, L.Q. ; Ooi, C.W. ; Blanco, A.; Negro, C. Pickering Emulsions Containing Cellulose Microfibers Produced by Mechanical Treatments as Stabilizer in the Food Industry. A microfluidic method to study demulsification kinetics. Wang, J.; Yu, M.Y. Hu, J.; Zhou, S.X. Yi, J.; Liu, Y.X. 1. Pickering emulsions can be produced using raw particles obtained from uncracked vegetal food byproducts as sole stabilizers. ; Sun, Y.Y. ; Barreiro, M.F. Xu, Q.Y. Preparation and characterization of pH-responsive Pickering emulsion stabilized by grafted carboxymethyl starch nanoparticles. ; Zhang, J.L. ; Yang, Q.Y. Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. In addition, during the processing of food-grade Pickering emulsion, due to environmental changes, it will also lead to lipid oxidation and degradation of some biologically active substances, which will change the flavor and quality of food. Recent advances of characterization techniques for the formation, physical properties and stability of Pickering emulsion. Due to the above mentioned instability, Abend, S.; Bonnke, N.; Gutschner, U.; Lagaly, G. Stabilization of emulsions by heterocoagulation of clay minerals and layered double hydroxides. ; Zhu, W.F. ; Cranston, E.D. Nonlinear interfacial rheology and atomic force microscopy of air-water interfaces stabilized by whey protein beads and their constituents. Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochem. ; Cayre, O.J. ; Lue, A.; Zhang, C.J. An oil-in-water emulsion stabilised by particles (Pickering emulsion). ; Chan, E.S. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. ; Liang, C.F. ; Liu, C.W. ; Tey, B.T. By adjusting the ionic strength of the system, the degree of flocculation between the droplets and the interface adsorption behavior of the colloidal particles can be adjusted to control the stability of the emulsion. ; Tang, C.H. ; Chan, E.S. It is known that when the ion concentration is low, the particles adsorbed on the interface increase, which will produce appropriate flocculation and enhance the protection of the interface film. Relevance and perspectives: Performing such experiments using food-grade particles would open the road for a new range of possible applications of EDGE microfluidic devices. Santos, J.; Alcaide-Gonzalez, M.A. Eng. Preparation and characterizations of Pickering emulsions stabilized by hydrophobic starch particles. In addition, due to the local high pressure and high temperature, the energy consumption is large during the preparation process resulting in the high operating cost. ; Wei, Y.; Sun, C.X. Zein nanoparticle stabilized Pickering emulsion enriched with cinnamon oil and its effects on pound cakes. ; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Y.H. Feng, X.; Sun, Y.J. Preparation and properties of emulsions with smectites and nonionic surfactants. In recent years, Pickering emulsions have emerged as a new method and have attracted much attention in the fields of food sciences. Cellulose Nanocrystals and Methyl Cellulose as Costabilizers for Nanocomposite Latexes with Double Morphology. ; Sun-Waterhouse, D.; Li, D.P. Pickering emulsions in foods - opportunities and limitations. Liu, F.; Tang, C.H. ; Mao, L.K. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. ; Ridout, M.J.; Han, J.; Wilde, P.J. 3099067 ; Park, K.D. ; Bai, L.J. Albert, C.; Beladjine, M.; Tsapis, N.; Fattal, E.; Agnely, F.; Huang, N. Pickering emulsions: Preparation processes, key parameters governing their properties and potential for pharmaceutical applications. ; Guo, S.L. ; He, S.; Liu, D.Q. Wang, L.J. ; Sarkar, A. Water-in-oil Pickering emulsions stabilized by an interfacial complex of water-insoluble polyphenol crystals and protein. ; Li, J.M. In food applications, researchers add emulsifiers so that the emulsion is not destroyed before the shelf life of the product [, It is well known that the free energy formula of emulsion system is ΔG = γ ΔA, where γ is the tension of the oil–water interface and ΔA is the total interface area of the system [, The most common physical degradation is gravity settling due to the density differences between the continuous phase and the dispersed phase [, Because the Pickering emulsion is composed of an oil phase and an aqueous phase, the system is prone to degrade due to the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Han, J.; Chen, F.; Gao, C.; Zhang, Y.; Tang, X. ; Sharma, M.M. Novel starch based emulsion gels and emulsion microgel particles: Design, structure and rheology. Writing—original draft preparation by L.C. ; Williams, R.A.; Biggs, S.; York, D.W. Production of solid-stabilised emulsions through rotational membrane emulsification: Influence of particle adsorption kinetics. Biopolymer-based particles of flaxseed protein and polysaccharides were used to stabilize the Pickering emulsion of flaxseed oil, whose oxidation stability was increased, and the addition of thymol to the oil phase further depressed the oxidation of flaxseed oil [, The wettability of solid particles is a key factor in the stability of Pickering emulsions and is generally characterized by the three-phase contact angle (θ). It is reported that emulsification of emulsions relied on the size of solid particles, which could be adsorbed on the globules to form a coating to prevent them from gathering [, Compared with conventional emulsions, Pickering emulsions have many unique advantages as follows: (i) Pickering emulsions use solid particles as emulsifiers to stabilize the emulsion, which can be irreversibly adsorbed at the oil-water interface to form a film to prevent the aggregation of oil droplets. Commonly used mechanical methods are cryogenic milling, wet milling and high-pressure homogenizer and high shear [, Acid hydrolysis, a chemical method, can reduce the size of particles which are insoluble in water and most organic solvents due to the presence of crystalline structures [, Anti-solvent precipitation method has several advantages such as low cost and easy operation, especially suits for water-insoluble food materials. When the pH value reached the isoelectric point, the electrostatic repulsion between the particles is weak, and the wettability in two phases becomes smaller, the emulsion particle size increases, and the emulsion become unstable. Lv, P.F. Comparison of self-aggregated chitosan particles prepared with and without ultrasonication pretreatment as Pickering emulsifier. Yang, T.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, B.S. Yang, J.; Thielen, I.; Berton-Carabin, C.C. ; Li, J.M. 2. Financial support was obtained from National Science Foundation of China (No. ; Trujillo-Cayado, L.A.; Carrillo, F.; Alfaro-Rodriguez, M.C. ; Fang, Y.P. Image Charge Effects on the Formation of Pickering Emulsions. Particles derived from food manufacturing co-products as Pickering emulsion stabilisers. Jiang, H.; Sheng, Y.; Ngai, T. Pickering Emulsions: Versatility of Colloidal Particles and Recent Applications. ; Yan, S.L. Chitosan hydrochloride/carboxymethyl starch complex nanogels as novel Pickering stabilizers: Physical stability and rheological properties. And then the solute in the solution is made into a gel particle state through re-coagulation, shearing, and homogenization, etc. ; Liu, Z.; Ma, M.Z. ; Li, C.J. Guo et al. ; Lin, D.H.; Liu, D.J. ; Xu, J.Y. Polymer Reaction Engineering Of Dispersed Systems, Vol I, Help us to further improve by taking part in this short 5 minute survey, Recovery of Anthocyanins from Passion Fruit Epicarp for Food Colorants: Extraction Process Optimization and Evaluation of Bioactive Properties, Antiproliferative Activity and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts of, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143202, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. ; Jin, Z.Y. ; Duan, Q.S. Improving Stability and Accessibility of Quercetin in Olive Oil-in-Soy Protein Isolate/Pectin Stabilized O/W Emulsion. Song, N.; Wang, A.J. ; Li, G.Y. In addition, nanotechnology is in the development stage. 2016GY-142). Tian, H.X. ; Yi, Y.C. Antioxidant coating of micronsize droplets for prevention of lipid peroxidation in oil-in-water emulsion. ; Yang, X.-Q. Preparation of soy protein-based microgel particles using a hydrogel homogenizing strategy and their interfacial properties. ; Johnson, E.J. Xiao, J.; Li, Y.Q. ; Yin, S.W. Aveyard, R. Can Janus particles give thermodynamically stable Pickering emulsions? Linke, C.; Drusch, S. Pickering emulsions in foods - opportunities and limitations. ; Yang, M.; Xu, D.R. The milk in pasteurized milk or sterilized milk contains 4% milk fat (equivalent to the dispersed phase in the emulsion), which can form tiny balls and disperse well into the emulsion being an emulsified state. Recent advances on food-grade particles stabilized Pickering emulsions: Fabrication, characterization and research trends. ; Whitby, C.P. III. ; de Carvalho, C.W.P. Whole cereal protein-based Pickering emulsions prepared by zein-gliadin complex particles. Yi, J.; Gao, L.Y. ; Ho, Y.K. Fig. The reality is somewhat less attractive, though there are plenty of such emulsions out there. Adsorption behavior of phospholipid vesicles at oil/water interfaces, Advances in fabrication of emulsions with enhanced functionality using structural design principles, Amphiphilic Janus particles at fluid interfaces. Study on influencing factors of Pickering emulsions stabilized by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with nonionic surfactants. ; Zhou, C.H. Krinsky, N.I. Emulsions are ordinarily composed of water and oil and it is customary to refer to organic liquids that are insoluble in water as oil phase. Herein, the Pickering emulsion had highly viscous and strong stability at pH 6.0 and 10.0 [, The electrolyte concentration also affects the stability of the emulsion by regulating the particle interface charge. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsion destabilisation at low particle concentrations. Moreover, we develop for the first-time food-grade, fluid CNC-stabilized Pickering emulsions with tunable droplet sizes. ; Al-Assaf, S. Improved Sugar Beet Pectin-Stabilized Emulsions through Complexation with Sodium Caseinate. Xu, C.H. Dairy products include liquid products (such as pasteurized milk, sterilized milk, yogurt), solid dairy products (such as cheese, fresh cream, ice cream, etc.). Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. However, some of these emulsifiers are harmful to human health, so applications are limited in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. ; Deng, C.F. produce Pickering emulsions comprising highly uniform, micron-size droplets. Pickering emulsion; solid particles; stabilization mechanism; food applications. ; Yao, Z.L. 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