The advantage of this system over the system with no pegs are predefined bases for measurement of characteristics, while the biggest disadvantage is that the system can deform, to a certain extent, the appearance of a hand, so measurements are not very precise, which leads to suboptimal results. A similarity score is produced and, based on the threshold of the system, the claim is either accepted or rejected. Anthropologists believe that humans survived and developed to today’s state (Homo sapiens) thanks to highly developed brains and separated thumbs. To sum it all up, the technology has potential as it is easy to use and could be adapted to be a multi-factor biometric authentication within a single step. Hand image was normalized by using basic morphological operators and edge detection. This approach is called intensity based approach. The user is being registered to database along with eigenvector of his hand (from now on we call this “eigen-hand”). For example, with weight loss/gain, the shape of the hand may change. Two different techniques were used to obtain skin color differences, lightning and noise which are relevant for eigenvector calculation. The geometric formulas for area and perimeter are often used to accomplish projects that require room and object measurements. Hand geometry recognition is the longest implemented biometric type, debuting in the market in the late 1980s. images of the palm and sides of the hand, offering a balance of reliability and
On the binary image the pixel values were analyzed to define the location of characteristic points. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Geometry helps you to bring together both sides of your brain. Biometric devices which test such uniqueness are gainning popularity in many technologies which regulate sensitive materials or access controls. Although these measurements are not very distinctive among people, hand geometry can be very useful for identity verification, i.e. The number of images per person varied from 2 to 15. Sometimes, digital image does not use its whole contrast range. Hand geometry scanners usually use ordinary CCD camera, sometimes with infrared light and reflectors that are being used for image capturing. Today, hand scanners are well accepted in the offices, factories and other business organization environments. They created a binary image from the image captured with an ordinary document scanner. For distance calculating, authors used absolute, weighted absolute, Euclidean and weighted Euclidean distances, with corresponding formulas: σj2is feature variance of jth feature, and, ϵα, ϵωα, ϵϵ, ϵωϵare thresholds for each respective distance metrics. In the  authors presented a method based on three keys. Hand silhouette captured with Schalge device. capture systems are commonly used by merchants to capture electronic signatures in the
Papers in this field are relatively new according to ones in the contact-based approach. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. In the Parameter Estimation Technique peg-based acquisition system was used. it can be used for personal identification. Hand geometry systems have the longest implementation history of all biometric modalities. The location of these areas can be seen in Figure 1. organizations are using hand-geometry readers in various scenarios, primarily for physical access
The most used verification methods in this approach are k – Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) and SVM. Image captured with this device can be seen in the Figure 15. The GUI helps in image acquisition while the mirror in the device used to obtain side view of the hand. The same procedure was made for each of 31 points. The left-brain is the more logical, technical field, whereas the right-brain is the part that visualizes and where the artist gets their creative inspiration from. The shape and length of the fingers are measured, as well as wrists. The hand of the subject is placed on the plate, palm down, and guided by five pegs that sense when the hand is in place. Mentioned features make hand geometry an ideal candidate for research and development of new acquisition, preprocessing and verification techniques. Hand geometry readers measure a user's hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file. All rights reserved. This means gradual changes will have little to no effect on performance. Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies users by the shape of their hands. One can notice that each of the two described systems is capable of competing with the commercial hand geometry systems. They are commonly used for access … At least 90 measurements are taken and 31,000 points of the generated silhouette image are analysed. Authors utilized the image morphology and concept of Voronoi diagram to cut the image of the front of the whole palm apart into several irregular blocks in accordance with the hand geometry. Shown in Figure 3, one can see that devices use 28cm optical path length between camera and the surface on which hand is placed on.