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Jahrhundert – Online-Bibliographie", "Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics", facinghistorycampus.org – The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased, Knittel, S. "Remembering Euthanasia: Grafeneck in the Past, Present, and Future."

[10], Edwin Black wrote that after the eugenics movement was well established in the United States, it was spread to Germany.

By the end of the Nazi regime, over 200 Hereditary Health Courts (Erbgesundheitsgerichte) were created, and under their rulings over 400,000 persons were sterilized against their will. In this period, people from across the political spectrum espoused eugenic ideas.

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[37] Politically, the movement advocated measures such as sterilization laws. [15][16] Modern historians, however, see Tacitus' ethnographic writing as unreliable in such details. This scenario would mean the return of coercive state-sponsored genetic discrimination and human rights violations such as compulsory sterilization of persons with genetic defects, the killing of the institutionalized and, specifically, segregation and genocide of races perceived as inferior.

Prenatal screening can be considered a form of contemporary eugenics because it may lead to abortions of children with undesirable traits.

A total of 3,559 of the appeals failed. %PDF-1.7 %���� Upon returning from Germany in 1934, where more than 5,000 people per month were being forcibly sterilized, the California eugenics leader C. M. Goethe bragged to a colleague: You will be interested to know that your work has played a powerful part in shaping the opinions of the group of intellectuals who are behind Hitler in this epoch-making program. The concept predates the term; Plato suggested applying the principles of selective breeding to humans around 400 BC. endstream

While eugenic principles have been practiced as early as ancient Greece, the contemporary history of eugenics began in the early 20th century, when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom,[6] and then spread to many countries, including the United States, Canada,[7] and most European countries. In the past, eugenics had more to do with sterilization and enforced reproduction laws. �VP��q:r|Z)MH� 0000021140 00000 n He claims that human lives would no longer seem meaningful in a world where such limitations could be overcome with technology.

Eugenic policies were first implemented in the early 1900s in the United States. Those behind the Veil in Rawls' Original Position would agree to permit negative, but not positive eugenics. [95] Additionally, Morgan criticized the view that certain traits, such as intelligence and criminality, were hereditary because these traits were subjective. [79] A system was proposed by California Senator Skinner to compensate victims of the well-documented examples of prison sterilizations resulting from California's eugenics programs, but this did not pass by the bill's 2018 deadline in the Legislature.[80].

Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

[12] German professor of medicine, anthropology and eugenics Eugen Fischer was the director of this organization, a man whose work helped provide the scientific basis for the Nazis' eugenics policies. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[262.128 226.194 370.212 238.206]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> The key words here are "preserve" and "prevent". [26], Information to determine who was considered 'genetically sick' was gathered from routine information supplied by people to doctor's offices and welfare departments. Osborn advocated for higher rates of sexual reproduction among people with desired traits ("positive eugenics") or reduced rates of sexual reproduction or sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits ("negative eugenics"). An alternative term was Volksaufartung (approximately "racial improvement").

[8], The early German eugenics movement was led by Wilhelm Schallmayer and Alfred Ploetz.

[92], Eugenic policies have been conceptually divided into two categories. Transhumanism is often associated with eugenics, although most transhumanists holding similar views nonetheless distance themselves from the term "eugenics" (preferring "germinal choice" or "reprogenetics")[78] to avoid having their position confused with the discredited theories and practices of early-20th-century eugenic movements. breeding of "Nordic" or "Aryan" traits [20] Galton had read his half-cousin Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, which sought to explain the development of plant and animal species, and desired to apply it to humans. There is consequently much to be said against the practice of sterilization. 0000009153 00000 n Science Fiction Studies, 27: 193-215", "Why we Should Defend Gene Editing as Eugenics", "Looking into the Shadow: Eugenics arguments in debates about reproductive technologies", "Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race", "Leilani Muir versus the philosopher king: Eugenics on trial in Alberta", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenics&oldid=982891855, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

Eventually, these policies would bear fruit in the 1935 Nuremberg Laws, which made it a criminal offense for Germans to marry Jews or to have their children. More than 400,000 people were sterilized against their will, while up to 300,000 were killed under Action T4, a mass murder program. [67][68][69] In 2007, the United Nations reported coercive sterilizations and hysterectomies in Uzbekistan.

[28], After the Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, it became compulsory for both marriage partners to be tested for hereditary diseases in order to preserve the perceived racial purity of the Aryan race. 91 0 obj

Eugenic Sterilization Laws.
[23], Eugenics became an academic discipline at many colleges and universities and received funding from many sources. endobj �V�'BU��b?�`Q�^������%j�`GL%���a�%t�������ƒQW�����l2���*'l�n�vM+�0�Ί�"0��o1�t�cU�f��t���ϔ!m7�ߍ��TR��Ooc�:�-� ��n٤1m�t�a:$Ϯ�h�P�^B*��r���;/&_����V2O'���F� ���o��!��MG�Ϊ���� 0000007495 00000 n 96 0 obj B. Niven & C. Paver [eds].

0000003650 00000 n [108], Some have described potential "eugenics wars" as the worst-case outcome of eugenics. (This consideration extended to the exemption of punishment for a Jewish couple who attempted to procure an abortion in 1938, on the basis that the law did not protect Jewish embryos.

From Euthanasia to the Final Solution, By Trust Betrayed: Patients, Physicians, and the License to Kill in the Third Reich, Life Unworthy of Life: Racial Phobia and Mass Murder in Hitler's Germany, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race, THE NAZI DOCTORS: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide, Nurses in Nazi Germany: Moral Choice in History, Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others in Germany, 1933-1945, Medicine and Medical Ethics in Nazi Germany: Origins, Practices, Legacies, From Racism to Genocide: Anthropology in the Third Reich, Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials: From Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent, Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945, "Disease and dictatorship: the case of Hitler's Reich", The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, Remembering Euthanasia: Grafeneck in the Past, Present, and Future, The Dysfunctional Progeny of Eugenics: Autonomy Gone AWOL, "Nazi Euthanasia of the Mentally Ill at Hadamar", "The role of biologists in Nazi atrocities: lessons for today's scientists", Ethics Of Using Medical Data From Nazi Experiments, Medical Experiments of the Holocaust and Nazi Medicine, National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), National Socialist German Doctors' League, National Socialist League for Physical Exercise (NSRL), Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party, German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia), German National Movement in Liechtenstein, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina), South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nazi_eugenics&oldid=979335910, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 0000004511 00000 n The racial ideology of Nazism "[113] Others, such as bioethicist Stephen Wilkinson of Keele University and Honorary Research Fellow Eve Garrard at the University of Manchester, claim that some aspects of modern genetics can be classified as eugenics, but that this classification does not inherently make modern genetics immoral.

[57] Some common early 20th century eugenics methods involved identifying and classifying individuals and their families, including the poor, mentally ill, blind, deaf, developmentally disabled, promiscuous women, homosexuals, and racial groups (such as the Roma and Jews in Nazi Germany) as "degenerate" or "unfit", and therefore led to segregation, institutionalization, sterilization, and even mass murder. Eugenics, the selection of desired heritable characteristics to improve future generations, typically in reference to humans.

[12], Societal and political consequences of eugenics call for a place in the discussion on the ethics behind the eugenics movement.

In September of the same year, the Berlin Council of Physicians warned its members that "proceedings will be taken against every evil-doer who dares to injure our sacred healthy race. Everyone was encouraged to carefully evaluate his or her prospective marriage partner eugenically during courtship. ", "Health and human rights leaders call for an international ban on species-altering procedures", "Beyond Abortion: Human Genetics and the New Eugenics", "Are We Too Close to Making Gattaca a Reality? [82][83] Galton published his observations and conclusions in his book Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development. 0000021857 00000 n "[87] Debate as to what exactly counts as eugenics continues today. �/ �p� B. S. Haldane wrote that "the motor bus, by breaking up inbred village communities, was a powerful eugenic agent.

The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927. Race laws and practices in the United States were explicitly used as models by the Nazi regime when it developed the Nuremberg Laws, stripping Jewish citizens of their citizenship.

Those deemed "unfit to reproduce" often included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges on different IQ tests, criminals and "deviants," and members of disfavored minority groups.

endobj [58] The Nazi policy of identifying German citizens deemed mentally or physically unfit and then systematically killing them with poison gas, referred to as the Aktion T4 campaign, is understood by historians to have paved the way for the Holocaust.

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[55] These laws were part of a broader policy of racial segregation in the United States to minimize contact between people of different ethnicities.