ALEXANDRA MINNA STERN, HISTORIAN: The Panama-Pacific Expo was really a defining moment for the American Eugenics Movement. We need to do a form of selection. We're very prone to believe that our people are the right people, and other people are a threat. NARRATOR: When the trial of the two surgeons got underway in San Francisco, Ann's questionable capacity to mother was the centerpiece of the defense. Everyone knew what the Kallikaks meant. CSS Photography Archives, Community Service Society Records, Rare Books & Manuscript Library, Columbia University

These essays included hair color, eye color, and skin pigmentation. Getty Images

The idea that somehow or the other that you can get the best humans by selectively breeding the best, most fit, heartiest, most beautiful. ADAM COHEN, WRITER: So this is a threat, and threat not just, you know, “Hey, I look around the city and it looks a little different.” This is a genetic invasion.

of his scientific methodology. act as to jeopardize it, with its excellent possibilities, or, from DR. SIDDHARTHA MUKHERJEE, WRITER: Gregor Mendel thought that every gene was its own unique discrete entity. THOMAS C. LEONARD, HISTORIAN: Eugenics is easy to accept because it preserves existing hierarchies. If you’re a prohibitionist and you wanna get rid of alcohol because alcohol breaks up families. The Eugenics Crusade Wins 2019 Writers Guild Award. DR. SIDDHARTHA MUKHERJEE, WRITER: The organism breeds so quickly that Morgan is able to see things that the eugenicists cannot because he’s watching mutations move across multiple generations. The mind control parasites have infected the human… Hereditary defect is no longer part of the conversation and it’s simply a question of a state attempting to use all the tools available to limit the number of people who were seen to be a social and economic burden. adulterate our national germ plasm with socially unfit traits." NARRATOR: Henry Goddard was 42 and a one-time teacher in Quaker schools. Over the two decades that preceded the Carrie Buck case, only about 6,000 sterilizations had been performed nationwide. . Transit Film GMBH NARRATOR: Eugenics might yet perfect the human race, Muller told the audience, but only in a society "consciously organized for the common good...". Woman 3: Well, I'll tell you. She later learned the surgeons not only had removed her appendix, but also a length of her fallopian tubes–-rendering her incapable of ever becoming pregnant. You could argue that they’re strategic but the difference is not that significant from the standpoint of those listening to her words. NARRATOR: It was the fall of 1926, and geneticist Hermann J. Muller, a former Columbia University Fly Boy, was looking for ways to speed his experiment along. NARRATOR: In the fall of 1902, an American biologist named Charles Benedict Davenport arrived in London on a sort of pilgrimmage. "I agree with you that society has no business to permit degenerates to reproduce their kind," former president Theodore Roosevelt wrote Davenport that year. With proper education, he now believed, such individuals were perfectly capable of managing their own affairs. As quoted in the National Academy of Sciences' "Biographical Memoir of Charles Benedict Davenport" by Oscar Riddle, Davenport's Eugenics creed was as follows:[15], For other people named Charles Davenport, see. Senior Contracts & Rights Manager They claim correctly that the eugenicists have first come up with their theory that Jews are inferior and then found the data to back it up. These units are being transmitted from parents to their offspring and they’re giving rise to physical traits. DR. SIDDHARTHA MUKHERJEE, WRITER: Morgan's work complicates the idea of simple eugenics because you don’t just pick one thing out of one drawer, a second thing out of another drawer until you get your ideal child. It was a hard push, reproductive rights, contraception. He was thirty-six, Harvard-educated, and like many biologists of his generation, absorbed with the study of evolution. Charles Benedict Davenport, (born June 1, 1866, Stamford, Connecticut, U.S.—died February 18, 1944, Cold Spring Harbor, New York), American zoologist who contributed substantially to the study of eugenics (the improvement of populations through breeding) and heredity and who pioneered the use of statistical techniques in biological research.. After receiving a doctorate in … But in the public mind, sterilization had been effectively recast––as a preventative measure against inept parenting. Across the country, eugenicists would be watching––to see if the Virginia test case could create a national consensus on sterilization. He'd been traveling in Europe with his wife, collecting seashells for research on species variation, but this was to be the highlight of the trip: a meeting with the world-renowned gentleman scientist, Sir Francis Galton.