Hegel cites the complexity of the Gothic cathedral, a structure well beyond the conceptions of the ancients. To refute their pretensions and to describe how his phenomenology works itself out in the course of world history, Hegel divides this section into three subsections: the principle of historical development; the beginning or genesis of history; and the manner or way of the course of history “and historical progress.”. The unification of theory and practice requires the unification of reason theoretical and practical reasoning, which is not to say that Hegel fails to differentiate them. The notion that history conforms to a “dialectical” pattern, according to which contradictions generated at one level are overcome or transcended at the next, was incorporated—though in a radically new form—in the theory of social change propounded by Karl Marx. To resist the dialectic is to be unfree. “The fancies which the individual in his isolation indulges cannot be the model for universal reality, just as universal law is not designed for single individuals alone.” Genuine ideals, however, are precisely those that are realized; “universal reason does realize itself”—as indeed it must, if reason is immanent in all things. Hegel doubts the value of such histories. Conceptual reflective history organizes itself around a general topic. After showing that Hegel’s conception of the modern state was based upon … It took a particular world-historical moment, namely the French Revolution, for spirit to become truly self-conscious; to escape ‘abstract’ freedom and realise ‘concrete’ freedom through the laws as they applied to the people. Some – notably Francis Fukuyama – have taken Hegel to mean that, because the goal of history as the self-consciousness of human freedom had been achieved in his time, the world had reached ‘the end of history’. Thus in a Hegelian dialectical process there is a conflict between a concept and its external opposite which develops into an internal contradiction where the concept struggles with itself, and through this struggle the concept is overcome and simultaneously preserved in a unification with its contradiction at a higher level. It is crucial to understand that Hegel doesn’t merely want to show that the amount of freedom has increased over the course of history, but that the concept of freedom itself has fundamentally changed. He begins with a lyrical description of “the course of history the great day’s work of the spirit,” a day culminating in man having “erected a building constructed from his own inner sun.” In this his book will redeem the Enlightenment, but on Hegel’s terms not its own. “In and through Hegel” the workings of ‘Providence’ “have become rationally clear.” ‘God’ no longer works in mysterious ways, thanks to the now-possible science of wisdom, a science made possible through the ‘pantheistic’ character of Being, whereby God is not holy or separate from Creation but immanent in it, knowable by its now-completed ways. “For the purpose of comprehending the general principles which it embodies in the shape of its concrete reality, we must premise some abstract determinations of the nature of spirit.” There are three of these: the “abstract elements of the nature of spirit”; the “means for realizing the Idea of spirit”; and the “existential shape of this realization.”. We can then derive our philosophy (or wisdom) from these facts, without imposing any metaphysical preconceptions on them. Its national territory is the “essential and necessary basis” for its spirit, a space and not only a time.