Analyzing spatiotemporal distribution of flood types can help adjust monitoring strategies for specific areas and flood genesis, highlight the importance of investigating certain generation processes (Würzer, Jonas, Wever, & Lehning, 2016), and define correct space–time scales to monitor rainfall in given catchments (Viglione, Chirico, Komma, et al., 2010). (2016) for the contiguous United States. Based on distinct rainfall patterns, four flood types related with different atmospheric circulation and moisture transport were derived that were associated with tropical and extratropical processes, such as extratropical cyclones, South Atlantic Convergence Zone, South America low‐level jet, as well as distinct patterns of sea surface temperature.
Furthermore, we illustrate the difference between existing frameworks based on the example of classifications with hydrological perspective (Section 2.4). Development of spatially consistent approaches that also account for mixed types is important for comprehensive assessment of flood risk at large spatial scales (Vorogushyn et al., 2018), and for extending their applicability for regional predictions. Flom i Norge, Quantifying effects of catchments storage thresholds on step changes in the flood frequency curve, Two‐component extreme value distribution for flood frequency analysis, A 2600‐year history of floods in the Bernese Alps , Switzerland : Frequencies , mechanisms and climate forcing, Effect of storm movement on flood peaks: Analysis framework based on characteristic timescales, Hydroclimatology: Perspectives and applications, Flood‐type classification in mountainous catchments using crisp and fuzzy decision trees, Development of a versatile flood frequency methodology and its application to flood series from different countries, Frequency analysis of nonidentically distributed hydrologic flood data, Hochwasser in Mitteleuropa seit 1500 und ihre Beziehung zur atmosphärischen Zirkulation, Exploring controls on rainfall‐runoff events: 1. Type of operation and complexity were recorded according to the BUPA classification.2223 BUPA categorises all commonly performed surgical procedures into five complexity grades (minor, intermediate, major, major plus, and complex major; supplementary table S15) and has been used previously for scientific purposes.2526, An online anonymous survey (SurveyMonkey, San Mateo, CA, USA) of 10 fictitious case scenarios (supplementary table S3) describing intraoperative adverse events was sent to a representative sample of physicians from the participating centres. The meteorological and climatic causes and preconditions of floods were further analyzed by Ward (1978), Maddox, Chappell, and Hoxit (1979), and Doswell, Brooks, and Maddox (1996). Outcomes for the whole study population and for subgroups with and with no intraoperative adverse events. ASA=American Society of Anesthesiologists’ physical status level.
Keller et al. We are grateful to S. Lane, J. Seibert, K.K.
Flow diagram of patients in the validation study of ClassIntra, Patient and procedural characteristics for the whole study population and for subgroups with and with no intraoperative adverse events. The only difference in the updated ClassIntra is that grade II has been divided into two grades. Baseline characteristics were similar in patients with and without intraoperative adverse events. The length of surgery was longer in patients experiencing an intraoperative adverse event, with an increase of 16% in median length of surgery with each grade increase in ClassIntra (95% confidence interval 13% to 18%; supplementary table S8). Therefore, for at‐site flood frequency analysis, the gain from using flood‐type‐based mixed distributions has to be first evaluated (Hirschboeck, 2007). Classification of the severity of the adverse events such as the Clavien – Dindo Classification for post-operative effects based on extent of therapeutic intervention needed to mitigate its effects seems to give a more accurate outcome.
Postoperative complications after discharge, including mortality within 30 days, were assessed during structured follow-up visits or telephone calls to patients or their relatives. Classification of the severity of the adverse events such as the Clavien – Dindo Classification for post-operative effects based on extent of therapeutic intervention needed to mitigate its effects seems to give a more accurate outcome. Based on the spatial patterns of precipitation in the catchment, events are classified as widespread or localized. Later on, a wide range of complex multicriteria classifications shaped by local and regional conditions were proposed to identify catchment‐scale flood generation mechanisms (Sections 2.2.2 and 2.2.3, Table 2b). Properties of flood hydrographs (e.g., peak, volume, duration) are usually assumed to be controlled by the features of triggering precipitation events (Hirschboeck, 1987) and by catchment‐scale runoff generation processes (Merz & Blöschl, 2003).
Using similar approach, Himmelsbach, Glaser, Schoenbein, Riemann, and Martin (2015) defined five types of specific spatial patterns of floods that affected the Rhine tributaries in Germany and France in the last 500 years.
All three methods use rainfall volume, intensity, and duration, but the values of splitting thresholds vary due to different temporal resolution of the input data, thus affecting the definitions of short rain, long rain, and flash floods.