Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. But the 2020 census is already well past the development stage. The Supreme Court has routinely ruled that states are allowed to use total population when drawing districts — including in a 2016 decision where the Court sided 8-0 with Texas’s use of total population — but it hasn’t explicitly said that they have to.

And it’s totally possible that a citizenship question wouldn’t have that big an impact — whether because it wouldn’t matter that much or because immigrants will already be afraid of the census no matter what it’s asking. Advocates and researchers don’t have a ton of data to help them predict the impact of adding a question that’s never been tested. Trump invoked executive privilege earlier in the day, refusing to share documents that House Democrats want for their investigation. They say the citizenship question is actually a central element of a Republican strategy to try to shift political boundaries to the party’s advantage when the states begin using the new census to redraw their district maps in 2021. As the Commerce Department announced the addition of a citizenship question, the Census Bureau was conducting its only full “dress rehearsal” field test for the 2020 census, in Providence, Rhode Island. After Thomas B. Hofeller, a Republican strategist, died last summer, his estranged daughter found hard drives in her father’s house whose contents revealed that he had written a report in 2015 saying that adding a citizenship question to the census would give Republicans a significant advantage in drawing new legislative district lines.

Protestors demonstrated outside the Supreme Court when the census question was argued in April.

Demographers studying the ACS data keep noticing that people often mark themselves as citizens when there’s pretty much no way they could be citizens — they’ve only lived in the US for a year, for example.

The House Oversight Committee voted Wednesday to recommend holding Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross and Attorney General William Barr in contempt of Congress for refusing to comply with subpoenas in the committee’s investigation into how and why the question was added.

Analysts say that leaving many immigrants out of the national head count could have the effect of shifting political power among the states and between the major political parties — which critics argue is the real purpose of adding the citizenship question. The resulting data is "critical" to understanding the localized population of eligible voters so it can enforce the Voting Rights Act and prevent racial discrimination at the polls, DOJ said.

Rep. Grace Meng, a California Democrat, asked at a hearing in March 2018. The Trump administration claims it needs to ask the question to collect the data for the Justice Department to enforce the Voting Rights Act.

Usually, census questions go through a pretesting process that can take years.

CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Ross later testified before Congress the decision did not involve the White House. Updated 1558 GMT (2358 HKT) April 22, 2019. Census workers also visit homes and use other techniques to try to make the count as complete as possible.

The decennial census count is used to divide up congressional seats and apportion millions of dollars of federal funding.

That ruling followed two similar rulings from courts in New York and California, which the government appealed to the Supreme Court. The Commerce Department, which is in charge of conducting the census, claims it added the question in response to a request sent last fall by the Department of Justice, then headed by Attorney General Jeff Sessions, that asked for a citizenship question on the 2020 census. There is one respect in which the Trump administration cares a lot about voting — it cares a lot about the complete and utter fiction that large numbers of noncitizens are able to vote. Government attorneys told the courts they need a decision by the end of June. Supreme Court agrees to take up 2020 census case, Ross declines to appear at Senate hearing amid escalating fight over census controversy, 2 versions of census prepared, with and without citizenship question.

And then there are the places where people live that aren’t on the master list of addresses the Census Bureau pulls together at all.

By one government estimate, about 6.5 million people might not be counted if the citizenship question is allowed. The Census Bureau has acknowledged that inquiring about citizenship status could lower the response rate among immigrants and people of color.

But census data is used for a great many other purposes as well, including the allocation of about $900 billion in federal spending each year. What it gets is what it gets.

But if the Latino response rate plummets in 2020, the undercount rate will soar. If that didn’t work, they’d try to get information from neighbors about who was living in the silent house — and if that didn’t work, they’d have to do “nearest-neighbor imputation,” or basically assuming that the household looks identical to that of the most similar household nearby. The congressional back-and-forth is just one battle in the ongoing war over the citizenship question, which will ask all census respondents to declare whether they are a citizen of the United States on the standard census form for the first time since 1950.

The Supreme Court did not give a final answer Thursday to a seemingly simple issue with big, complex ramifications: Can the federal government legally ask people whether they are American citizens as part of the 2020 census?

But opponents say that including the question would deter many immigrants and their families, both legal and undocumented, from filling out and returning their census forms. But for a social scientist, that in itself is reason for concern.

They dismiss the voting-rights argument, saying the government’s current estimate of the number of voting-age American citizens is sufficient for that purpose.

They note that the DOJ letter came after Ross reached out to Attorney General Jeff Sessions, and that months before, White House strategist Steve Bannon had connected Ross with Kris Kobach, who led a much-criticized panel investigating alleged election fraud. The fight over the 2020 census citizenship question, explained, holding Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross and Attorney General William Barr in contempt of Congress, Trump invoked executive privilege earlier in the day, discovery of hard drives from a Republican operative, House committee votes to hold attorney general and commerce secretary in contempt of Congress, Poland and US beef up security cooperation with additional troop rotations, The case for more — many more — Americans, explained, The 10 Most Innovative K-Beauty Launches Of 2018, According To The Experts, A Week In Detroit, MI, On A $52,275 Salary, 7 Beauty Brands That Are Fighting Anti-Abortion Laws, China is systematically detaining Uighurs — and the world isn’t doing enough about it, Here are the ways nature could wipe out humanity, The Best Gifts For Every Kid, No Matter Their Age, The Real Reasons Millennials Are Struggling (Infographic).

The Census Bureau says the change between the two censuses wasn’t statistically significant. That may seem uncontroversial, but critics say it is far from the whole story.